The University of Arts Târgu-Mureş is an accredited higher education state institution, as established by law. The University of Arts Târgu-Mureş is engaged in education, scientific research and artistic creation, based on the regulations and established benchmarks of University Charter, in accordance with the national legislation (The Romanian Constitution, National Education Act no.1/2011 and other national laws and regulations in the fields of education and culture) and the principles of the European Higher Education Area.

The current structure of the University was formed in the flow and the rhythm of successive mutations produced in university culture since the middle of the last century. The legal forerunner of the University of Arts Târgu-Mures, the Hungarian Conservatory of Music and Dramatic Arts in Cluj-Napoca, was founded in 1946 by Decree - Law no. 276 of April 9, signed by King Michael, the Minister of Arts, Mihai Ralea, and the Finance Minister Gheorge Tatarescu. In 1948 (due to the Order of the Ministry of Public Education, no.249 of October, 26), the Art Institute in Romanian was founded in Cluj-Napoca, while the Art
Institute in Hungarian continued the academic training which had begun at the Conservatory. In 1950, by Decision no. 1137/06.11, the Council of Ministers decided the unification of the two Institutes of Arts, therefore the Szentgyörgyi István Theatre Institute was established. At that time, the Institute was running a drama department in Romanian and a drama and directing department in Hungarian.

In 1954, the Romanian section of the Institute of Theatre and the directing department of the Szentgyörgyi István Theatre Institute were transferred from Cluj-Napoca to the Institute of Theatre and Cinematography I.L. Caragiale Bucharest, while the Hungarian section of the acting department was transferred to Târgu-Mureş, maintaining the original titles of the institution. In the intellectual climate of the Szekely Theatre (as called then), they soon managed to organise a high-class drama school. In 1962, the Studio Theatre was inaugurated, with 174 seats and the necessary infrastructure, therefore becoming a theatre with recognised artistic achievements. In 1972, directing studies in Hungarian were re-introduced, but stopped after one year of study. In 1976, the Acting department in Romanian was re-established.

Since 1989, the university restored a normal environment in both Romanian and Hungarian speaking acting classes, organising directing studies departments in both languages (1991) and establishing accredited study programmes in Romanian and Hungarian. In 2005, the Ministry of Education stated (Order no. 5660/12.12.2005) that the University of Arts Târgu-Mures became an institution able to organise PhD in Theater Studies.

In 2010 (after ARACIS Council meeting of 18 March), University of Arts Târgu-Mures received high trust rating. In 1991, the institution's name was changed from Szentgyörgyi István Theatre Institute to  Academy of Theatre. In 1998, the Government Decision No. 57 / February 2, 1998 changed the
name of the institution again: Academy of Theatre became University of Theatre in Târgu- Mureş. In 2009, a new Government Decision 1093/30 from September 2009, on amending and supplementing Government Decision no. 749/2009, the University of Theatre in Targu Mures changed its name to the University of Arts Târgu Mures.

The University of Arts currently works according to Government Decision no.
966/29.09.2011, with two faculties: Faculty of Arts in Romanian and Faculty of Arts in Hungarian, offering study programmes at bachelor level in the field of theatre - performing arts, visual arts, music and communication sciences, master's and doctorate in theatre and performing arts.